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They have acted unfavorably on establishments themselves,
by taking away many of the motives for religious activity;
they have destroyed the independence of the clergy by mak-
ing ecclesiastical dignities dependent on government; they
have made religious livings matter of sale, and enticed bad
men into the church by the hope of promotion.
They have, in some countries, made the right of remaining
in the country, for dissenters from the state church, to depend
on the will of the sovereign. We have referred to the 30,000
Protestants driven from Salzburg by the prince-bishop. The
emigration after the revocation of the edict of Nantes furnished
20,000 new inhabitants to the elector of Brandenburg's do-
minions, and sent 15,000 noblemen of the Huguenots, besides
vast numbers of others, to various parts of the world. More
than 100,000 are said to have perished in Languedoc during
the Dragonades. Even emigration was forbidden, on pain of
being sent to the galleys.
They have prevented intermarriage, and in some cases
transmission of property.
They have caged together in one establishment opposite
beliefs, or led men to sign subscriptions hypocritically, or
produced a positive hatred, in the literary class, to Christianity.
We are in favor of the largest liberty needed by tender con-
sciences consistent with the genius of Christianity, and of a
comprehensive church ; but it is a great snare to sign articles
meant to be articles of faith, without the feeling of agreeing
with them at least in substance.
They have given rise to the Inquisition, to the High Com-
mission court, and to multitudes of persecutions.
On the other hand, religious laws of the state and establish-
Estabiishments  ments  have not   produced unanimity or  pre"
have faied o t eir ventecj Dissent.    Let us test this by the state of
things in some of the best countries in the world.    In Eng-
land, where once it was hardly respectable to be a dissenter,
it is estimated that one-half of the average numbjer of attend-
ants on public worship belong to this class of congregations
where the worshippers themselves pay for all expenses